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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> Police argue that residents in high-crime communities often demand police action. What is left out is that these communities also ask for better schools, parks, libraries, and jobs, but these services are rarely provided.

The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> Part of the problem stems from a “warrior mentality.” Police often think of themselves as soldiers in a battle with the public rather than guardians of public safety.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> The broken-windows theory magically reverses the well-understood causal relationship between crime and poverty, arguing that poverty and social disorganization are the result, not the cause, of crime and that the disorderly behavior of the growing “underclass” threatens to destroy the very fabric of cities.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> Broken-windows policing is at root a deeply conservative attempt to shift the burden of responsibility for declining living conditions onto the poor themselves and to argue that the solution to all social ills is increasingly aggressive, invasive, and restrictive forms of policing

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> As inequality continues to increase, so will homelessness and public disorder, and as long as people continue to embrace the use of police to manage disorder, we will see a continual increase in the scope of police power and authority at the expense of human and civil rights.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> In some ways, training is actually part of the problem ... The endlessly repeated point is that any encounter can turn deadly in a split second if officers don’t remain ready to use lethal force at any moment. When police come into every situation imagining it may be their last, they treat those they encounter with fear and hostility and attempt to control them rather than communicate with them

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> Reformers often call for recruiting more officers of color in the hopes that they will treat communities with greater dignity, respect, and fairness. Unfortunately, there is little evidence to back up this hope. Even the most diverse forces have major problems with racial profiling and bias, and individual black and Latino officers appear to perform very much like their white counterparts.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> Having more black and brown police officers may sound like an appealing reform, but as long as larger systems of policing are left in place, there is no evidence that would give cause to expect a significant reduction in brutality or overpolicing.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> By conceptualizing the problem of policing as one of inadequate training and professionalization, reformers fail to directly address how the very nature of policing and the legal system served to maintain and exacerbate racial inequality.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> the basic nature of the law and the police, since its earliest origins, is to be a tool for managing inequality and maintaining the status quo. Police reforms that fail to directly address this reality are doomed to reproduce it.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> Well-trained police following proper procedure are still going to be arresting people for mostly low-level offenses, and the burden will continue to fall primarily on communities of color because *that is how the system is designed to operate*—not because of the biases or misunderstandings of officers.

(Emphasis author's.)

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> The research shows that community policing does not empower communities in meaningful ways. It expands police power, but does nothing to reduce the burden of overpolicing on people of color and the poor. It is time to invest in communities instead. Participatory budgeting and enhanced local political accountability will do more to improve the well-being of communities than enhancing the power and scope of policing.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> The close working relationship between police and prosecutors, normally an asset in homicide investigations, becomes a fundamental conflict of interest in all but the most straightforward cases. As a result, prosecutors are often reluctant to pursue such cases aggressively.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> even when a prosecutor is motivated, there are huge legal hurdles. State laws authorizing police use of force, backed up by Supreme Court decisions, give police significant latitude in using deadly force.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> Another challenge that won’t be fixed by independent prosecutors is the mindset of juries.

> White jurors are much more likely to side with police, regardless of the race of the officer and the person killed.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> The country’s approximately 17,000 independent police departments all have their own ways of doing things, with remarkable autonomy. A political or legal victory imposing changes on one local police department may have no bearing on the one next door.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> Under the Trump administration, there is even less reason to rely on this strategy to rein in local police ... Instead, we must hold local officials directly accountable for the behavior and mission of local police.

👀

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> Ultimately, body cameras are only as effective as the accountability mechanisms in place.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> Any hope we have of holding police more accountable must be based on greater openness and transparency.

> Entrenched practices that serve no legitimate purpose, failed policies, implicit and explicit racism among the rank and file, and a culture of hostility toward the public must be rooted out.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale 

> Just as many hospitals, universities, and corporations have outside directors drawn from the communities they serve, the police should be bringing people in, not shutting them out.

> As NYU law professor Barry Friedman notes, our failure to adequately oversee the actions of police puts our society at peril, especially as new technologies give police the ability to see into ever more aspects of our private lives.

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