OK, I am going to switch back to The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale.

(As with the other theory I'm reading, I'll post a thread of quotes that I find interesting. This helps me engage with the text better. I'm not aiming to summarise or anything, so please do seek out the source material.)

I did already read the first chapter, but didn't include the above disclaimer so I'm starting a new thread. My notes from chapter 1 are here: wrestle.town/@Odd_Bloke/104266

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Crime control is a small part of policing, and it always has been.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> the veteran police scholar David Bayley argues, "The police do not prevent crime. This is one of the best kept secrets of modern life. Experts know it, the police know it, but the public does not know it. Yet the police pretend that they are society's best defense against crime and continually argue that if they are given more resources, especially personnel, they will be able to protect communities against crime. This is a myth."

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> For [liberals], the state, through elections and other democratic processes, represents the general will of society as well as any system could; those who act against those interests, therefore, should face the police. The police must maintain their public legitimacy by acting in a way that the public respects and is in keeping with the rule of law. For liberals, police reform is always a question of taking steps to restore that legitimacy.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

Oh I forgot to copy paste the note from the other thread, but I'm transcribing these quotes, so any errors are almost certainly mine.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> [Liberals] argue that racist and brutal cops can be purged from the profession and an unbiased system of law enforcement reestablished in the interest of the whole society. They want the police to be better trained, more accountable, and less brutal and racist--laudable goals, but they leave intact the basic institutional functions of the police, which have never really been about public safety or crime control.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> What is missing from this liberal approach is any critical assessment of what problems the state is asking the police to solve and whether the police are really the best suited to solve them.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> The reality is that the police exist primarily as a system for managing and even producing inequality by suppressing social movements and tightly managing the behaviors of poor and nonwhite people: those on the losing end of economic and social arrangements.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> the earliest origins of policing ... were tied to three basic social arrangements of inequality in the eighteenth century: slavery, colonialism, and the control of a new industrial working class. This created what Allan Silver calls a "policed society," in which state power was significantly expanded in the face of social upheavals and demands for justice.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> In the words of Mark Neocleous, police exist to "fabricate social order," but that order rests on systems of exploitation--and when elites feel that this system is at risk, whether from slave revolts, general strikes, or crime and rioting in the streets, they rely on the police to control those activities.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> When possible, the police aggressively and proactively prevent the formation of movements and public expressions of rage, but when necessary they will fall back on brute force.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> while the specific forms that Policing takes have changed as the nature of inequality and the forms of resistance to it have shifted over time, the basic function of managing the poor, foreign, and nonwhite on behalf of a system of economic and political inequality remains.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Peel developed his ideas while managing the British colonial occupation of Ireland and seeking new forms of social control that would allow for continued political and economic domination in the face of growing insurrections, riots, and political uprisings.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Peel was forced to develop a lower-cost and more legitimate form of policing: a "Peace Preservation Force," made up of professional police who attempted to manage crowds by embedding themselves more fully in rebellious localities, then identifying and neutralizing troublemakers and ringleaders through threats and arrests.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> The London model was imported into Boston in 1838 and spread through Northern cities over the next few decades.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> It was the creation of police that made widespread enforcement of vice laws and even the criminal code possible for the first time. These morality laws both gave the state greater power to intervene in the social lives of the new immigrants and opened the door to widespread corruption.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> While station house basements often housed the homeless, and officers managed a large population of orphaned youth, as Eric Monkkonen points out, these efforts were primarily designed to surveil and control this population rather than provide meaningful assistance.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Corruption remains an issue, especially in relation to drugs and sex work, but tends to be more isolated, less systemic, and subject to some internal disciplinary controls, as liberal reformers have worked to shore up police legitimacy.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Reformers like August Vollmer developed police science courses and textbooks, utilized new transportation and communication technologies, and introduced fingerprinting and police labs. As we will see later, many of these ideas emerged from his experiences as part of the US occupation forces in the Philippines.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> The Coal and Iron Police committed numerous atrocities, including the Latimer Massacre of 1897, in which they killed nineteen unarmed miners and wounded thirty-two others. The final straw was the Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902, a pitched battle that lasted five months and created national coal shortages.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> In the aftermath, political leaders and employers decided that a new system of labor management paid for out of the public coffers would be cheaper for them and have greater public legitimacy and effectiveness. The result was the creation of the Pennsylvania State Police in 1905, the first state police force in the country.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> It was modelled after the Philippine Constabulary, used to maintain the US occupation there, which became a testing ground for new police techniques and technologies. The local population resented US occupation and developed anticolonial organizations and struggles. The national police force attempted to develop close ties to local communities to allow it to monitor subversive activities.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> The US also moved quickly to erect telephone and telegraph wires, to allow quick communication of emerging intelligence. When demonstrations emerged, the police, through a huge network of informants, could anticipate them and place spies and agents provocateurs among them to sow dissent and allow leaders and other agitators to be quickly arrested and neutralized.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> this new paramilitary force represented an important shift of power away from local communities. This shift unambiguously favored the interests of large employers, who had significantly more influence over state level politicians.

Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> In 1915, the State Commission on Industrial Relations described them as: "an extremely efficient force for crushing strikes, but ... not successful in preventing violence in connection with strikes, in maintaining legal and civil rights of the parties to the dispute, nor in protecting of the public. On the contrary, violence seems to increase rather than diminish when the constabulary is brought into an industrial dispute..."

(1st elision authors, 2nd mine)

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Marine General Smedley Butler, who created the Haitian police and played a major role in the US occupation of Nicaragua, served as police chief of Philadelphia in 1924, ushering in a wave of technological modernization and militarized police tactics. He was removed from office after a public outcry over his repressive methods.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Jeremy Kuzmarov documents US involvement in creating repressive police forces in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua. These forces were designed to be part of a ... program of modernization and nation-building, but were quickly turned into forces of brutal repression in the service of US-backed regimes. These US-trained security forces went on to commit horrific human rights abuses, including torture, extortion, kidnapping, and mass murder.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Japan, South Korea, and South Vietnam all had US-created police forces whose primary purposes were intelligence and counterinsurgency.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Postwar police reformer O.W. Wilson, a colonel in the military police during World War II, was involved in the denazification of Germany following the war. Afterwards, he went on to teach police science at Berkeley and was appointed Commissioner of Police in Chicago in 1960 and influenced a generation of police executives with his ideas of preventative policing.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> The US also had its own domestic version of colonial policing: the Texas Rangers. Initially a loose band of irregulars, the Rangers were hired to protect the interests of newly arriving white colonists, first under the Mexican government, later under [the] Republic of Texas, and finally as part of the state of Texas. Their main work was to hunt down native populations accused of attacking white settlers, as well as investigating crimes like cattle rustling.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Mexicans and Native Americans who resisted Ranger authority could be killed, beaten, arrested, or intimidated. Mike Cox describes this as nothing short of an extermination campaign in which almost the entire indigenous population was killed or driven out of the territory.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> the horrific 1918 massacre at Porvenir, in which Rangers killed 15 unarmed locals and drove the remaining community into Mexico for fear of further violence. This led to ... state legislative hearings in 1919 about extrajudicial killings and racially motivated brutality on behalf of white ranchers. Those hearings resulted in no formal charges; the graphic records of abuse were sealed for the next fifty years to avoid any stain on the Rangers' "heroic" record

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> In the 60s and 70s, local and state elites used Rangers to suppress the political and economic rights of Mexican Americans and played a central role in subverting farmworker movements by shutting down meetings, intimidating supporters, and arresting and brutalizing picketers and union leaders. They were also frequently called in to intimidate Mexican Americans out of voting in local elections.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> in 1963, [Crystal City Mexican Americans] ran a slate of candidates for... city council. In response, the Rangers undertook a program of intimidation. They tried to prevent voter rallies, threatened candidates and supporters, and even engaged in physical attacks and arrests. In the end, because of extensive outside press coverage, the Rangers had to back down and the slate swept the election, ushering in a period of greater civil rights for Mexican Americans

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Slavery was another major force that shake early US policing. Well before the London Metropolitan Police were formed, Southern cities ... had paid full-time police who wore uniforms, were accountable to local civilian officials, and were connected to a broader criminal justice system. These early police forces were derived not from the informal watch system as happened in the Northeast, but instead from slave patrols, and developed to prevent revolts.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> When slavery was abolished ...; small towns and rural areas developed new and more professional forms of policing... The main concern of this period was... forcing newly freed blacks into subservient economic and political roles. New laws outlawing vagrancy were used extensively to force blacks to accept employment, mostly in the sharecropping system. Local police enforced ... voter suppression efforts to ensure white control of the political system.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Local police were the essential front door of the twin evils of convict leasing and prison farms.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> sheriffs and judges also received kickbacks and in some cases generated lists of fit and hardworking blacks to be incarcerated on behalf of employers, who would then lease them out to perform forced labor for profit.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> By the Jim Crow era, policing had become a central tool of maintaining racial inequality throughout the South, supplemented by ad hoc vigilantes such as the Ku Klux Klan, which often worked closely with--and was populated by--local police.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Northern policing was also deeply affected by emancipation. ... Ghettos were established in Northern cities to control this growing population, with police playing the role of both containment and pacification. Up until the 1960s, this was largely accomplished through the racially discriminatory enforcement of the law and widespread use of excessive force.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Blacks knew very well what the behavioral and geographic limits were and the role the police played in maintaining them in both the Jim Crow South and the ghettoized North.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> In the South police became the front line for suppressing the [civil rights] movement. They denied protest permits, threatened and beat demonstrators, made discriminatory arrests, and failed to protect demonstrators from angry mobs and vigilante actions, including beatings, disappearances, bombings, and assassinations. All of this occurred to preserve a system of formal racial discrimination and economic exploitation.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

> Eventually local police, often working in cooperation with the FBI, undertook the overt suppression of these movements through targeted arrests on trumped-up charges and ultimately even assassinations of prominent leaders such as Fred Hampton, the Black Panther leader killed in a hail of gunfire in the middle of the night during a police raid of his Chicago apartment.

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Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

@Odd_Bloke this is fascinating. I had no idea that policing as an institution was so young

Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

@Aleums yeah I guess I always assumed it was a slow evolution over time but, nope!

Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

@Odd_Bloke knowing something had a beginning gives me hope that it will have an end

Alex S. Vitale - The End of Policing 

@Aleums yes!

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